Once the land of the Incas, Peru was conquered by Pizarro and the Spanish crown. Before the arrival of the Spanish the Incas ruled one of the most advanced civilizations in the America's. However, the Spanish reduced to country to being nothing more than an occupied territory.
The great liberators, Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar eventually freed Peru and most of South America from Spanish rule in the 1820's.
In recent years, in spite of a dictatorship and some problems with radical terrorists, Peru has become a peaceful and productive country. Peruvians have mining, potatoes, peanuts, peppers and a myriad of other produce that they export throughout South America.